A mathematical theory of deep convolutional neural networks for feature extraction

Authors

Thomas Wiatowski and Helmut Bölcskei

Reference

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 1845-1866, Mar. 2018

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2017.2776228

[BibTeX, LaTeX, and HTML Reference]

Abstract

Deep convolutional neural networks have led to breakthrough results in numerous practical machine learning tasks such as classification of images in the ImageNet data set, control-policy-learning to play Atari games or the board game Go, and image captioning. Many of these applications first perform feature extraction and then feed the results thereof into a trainable classifier. The mathematical analysis of deep convolutional neural networks for feature extraction was initiated by Mallat, 2012. Specifically, Mallat considered so-called scattering networks based on a wavelet transform followed by the modulus non-linearity in each network layer, and proved translation invariance (asymptotically in the wavelet scale parameter) and deformation stability of the corresponding feature extractor. This paper complements Mallat's results by developing a theory that encompasses general convolutional transforms, or in more technical parlance, general semi-discrete frames (including Weyl-Heisenberg filters, curvelets, shearlets, ridgelets, wavelets, and learned filters), general Lipschitz-continuous non-linearities (e.g., rectified linear units, shifted logistic sigmoids, hyperbolic tangents, and modulus functions), and general Lipschitz-continuous pooling operators emulating, e.g., sub-sampling and averaging. In addition, all of these elements can be different in different network layers. For the resulting feature extractor we prove a translation invariance result of vertical nature in the sense of the features becoming progressively more translation-invariant with increasing network depth, and we establish deformation sensitivity bounds that apply to signal classes such as, e.g., band-limited functions, cartoon functions, and Lipschitz functions.

Keywords

Machine learning, deep convolutional neural networks, scattering networks, feature extraction, frame theory.


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