User Tracking for Access Control with Bluetooth Low Energy


Robert Heyn, Marc Kuhn, Henry Schulten, Gregor Dumphart, Janick Zwyssig, Florian Trösch, and Armin Wittneben


IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Apr. 2019.

DOI: 10.1109/VTCSpring.2019.8746465

[BibTeX, LaTeX, and HTML Reference]


The Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a popular means for indoor user localization and tracking as it reflects the transmitter-receiver distance and is readily available in all current smartphones. Since fading, shadowing and antenna patterns cause severe RSSI fluctuations, many RSSI-based localization systems use fingerprinting instead of parameter estimation based on a channel model (e.g. trilateration from distance estimates). Fingerprinting however requires a large effort for training data acquisition and frequent updates in dynamic environments. In this paper we focus on wireless access control with BLE. We demonstrate that a practical implementation of such a tracking system can meet the typical demands of generic access control problems with low-complexity parameter estimation techniques, namely trilateration and optional Kalman filtering. Thereby, satisfactory accuracy is enabled by diversity (averaging in space, time and frequency), calibration and appropriate observation space modeling. We find that including the RSSI directly in the observation space renders trilateration obsolete, which reduces complexity even further.


access control, Bluetooth Low Energy, Extended Kalman Filter, IoT, localization, RSSI, tracking


Conference slides are found HERE.

Download this document:


Copyright Notice: © 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.